Race, ethnicity and religion: social actors and policies

LONDON - JULY 11: Women pass through a timeline of Islamic history at the Islam Expo on July 11, 2008 in London, England. People have travelled from all over the world to attend the Islam Expo at Olympia, which is the largest Islamic exhibition in Europe and runs from July 11 - July 14, 2008. (Photo by Cate Gillon)Danièle Joly, Race, ethnicity and religion: social actors and policies, FMSH-WP-2012-24, novembre 2012.

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L’auteur/The author

Professor Joly is professor at the University of Warwick and Marie Curie Fellow at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales (CADIS) conducting research on Muslim women political participation in Europe and she is developing research on Business and migration policy in France at the Institut français des relations internationales (IFRI). In 2011-2012, she was chercheure residente at the Institut d’études avancées de Paris (FMSH). Prior to this, she was director of the Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations at the University of Warwick. She obtained a Licence es Lettres from the University of Nanterre and a Master’s degree in Industrial relations from the University of La Sorbonne. She gained a PhD from the University of Aston and a D. Litt from the University of Warwick. She has published on Muslim populations in Britain and France, on ethnic relations and on refugees in Europe. Her publications include L’Emeute (2007), Muslims in Prison (2005), Blacks and Britannity (2001), Haven or Hell: Asylum Policy and Refugees in Europe (1996), Britannia’s Crescent: Making a Place for Muslims in British Society (1995), Refugees: Asylum in Europe (1992) and The French Communist Party and the Algerian War (1991). She is editor of International Migration in the new Millenium (2004), Global Convergence in Asylum Regimes (2001). She is an active member of various European networks of researchers on refugees and asylum and on Muslims in Europe. Her areas of expertise include Muslims in Europe, refugees and asylum policy in Europe, ethnic relations and integration.

Le texte/The text

This text is published in the Working Papers Series of the Fondation Maison des sciences de l’homme in conjunction with the Centre d’analyse et d’intervention sociologiques (CADIS) de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, centre hosted by the Fondation Maison des sciences de l’homme. A shorter version of this article was published in Patterns of Prejudice: Danièle Joly ‘Race, ethnicity and religion: emerging policies in Britain’ in National Models of Integration and the Crisis of Multiculturalism:A Critical Comparative Perspective Christophe Bertossi et Jan Willem Duyvendak (eds) Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 46, no. 5, December 2012. The author wishes to thank the FMSH, the IFRI, the IAE-Paris and the CADIS.

Résumé

Le modèle d’intégration britannique est le plus souvent cité comme l’archétype du modèle multiculturaliste en Europe. De plus, il est régulièrement présenté comme un paramètre pérenne de la société britannique, intrinsèque à cette dernière. En réalité, le modèle d’intégration britannique est le fruit de l’interaction entre les minorités ethniques d’origine immigrée installées en Grande-Bretagne après la Seconde Guerre mondiale et la société britannique, une intégration qui a traversé les phases successives d’une évolution toujours en cours. Après une brève période assimilationniste, un paradigme de relations raciales fondé sur les classes sociales fut introduit auquel a succédé la mise en place d’une politique multiculturaliste. Par la suite, le modèle multiculturaliste a fait l’objet d’une série de critiques émanant de sources variées. Cependant, cet article défend la thèse d’une métamorphose plutôt que celle d’une élimination pure et simple, le multiculturalisme s’étant transformé en un paradigme musulman. Il examine les différentes étapes et les modes d’élaboration de la politique d’intégration s’adressant aux immigrés. Ces politiques se sont formulées à partir de la catégorisation des immigrés par la société environnante et par la mobilisation de ces derniers dans leur interaction avec la société britannique. L’article dresse un tableau de chacune des étapes, examine les lignes de fracture et les zones de tension. Il explore les lignes de force qui en sous-tendent l’évolution. Il souligne que l’action des immigrés a été décisive dans la constitution de ces politiques. Il s’agit d’un processus qui a commencé au niveau local à l’initiative des immigrés par la mise en oeuvre de leur capacité d’action, pour ensuite s’étendre à l’échelle nationale. Les programmes de financement considérables qui en ont résulté ont été développés par le gouvernement central mais les artisans de ces politiques et de leur application n’en demeurent pas moins les immigrés et les autorités locales.

Mots-clés

Islam, multiculturalisme, musulmans, relations raciales

Abstract

Britain’s integration model is recurrently held up as the epitome of the multiculturalist model in Europe. Moreover, it tends to be presented as though it was intrinsic to British society and had always existed. This is not the case. In reality the model has passed through successive phases of an ongoing evolution and was constructed through the interaction between British society and the ethnic minorities of immigrant origin who settled in Britain after the Second World War. After a brief period of assimilationism, a race relations paradigm was formulated, followed by the establishment of a multicultural policy. It is often assumed that multicultural policy is a simple continuation of a race relations approach under another name. But this paper argues that this is inaccurate and that each corresponds to distinct policy parameters and to different stages. Moreover, this was not the end of the line. The multiculturalist model has come under a barrage of criticism emanating from various sources and different viewpoints. Nevertheless, this paper maintains that it has not been eliminated but has metamorphosed into a Muslim paradigm. It explores the different stages of integration policies directed at immigrants and how those were constructed. The paradigms were developed through the categorisation of immigrants by majority society and the mobilisation of immigrants as a result of their interaction with British society. The paper draws the contours of each of these stages, examines the fault lines and areas of tension, and explores the underpinnings of the evolution. It argues that policies were forged through and beyond discourses largely by the immigrants themselves. In the main it can be posited that the process started with action that began at local level at the initiative of the immigrants and through immigrants/ethnic minority agency; it subsequently progressed to the national level. This prompted responses and funding programmes from central government. Nonetheless the artisans of those policies in their implementation were the immigrants and local authorities.

Keywords

Islam, multiculturalism, Muslims, race relations

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